Mughal Garden Rashtrapati Bhavan, Delhi

Two channels running North to South and two running East to West divide this garden into a grid of squares. There are six lotus shaped fountains at the crossings of these channels. Wheresas the energetic fountains rising upto a height of 12 feet create soothing murmur that enthralls the visitor, the channels are so tranquil in their movement that they seem frozen. In the channels at appropriate times of day can be seen reflections of the imposing building and the proud flowers. There are wooden trays placed on stands in the centre of the channels where grain is put for the birds to feed upon.

Mughal Garden Rashtrapati Bhavan, Delhi

There are two big lawns, the central one is a square with each side being 45 meters and the East lawn adjacent to the building, oblong in shape and about three fourth the size of Central lawn. The lawns are covered by 'Doob' grass which was originally brought from Belvedere Estate, Calcutta when they were initially laid. The entire turf of the lawn is removed once in a year before the monsoons, new top soil is spread and it takes three weeks for the grass to grow again. In the evenings Peacock with their consorts can be seen leisurely moving around. And once in a while a lapwing can be seen meditating oblivious of the surrounding splendour. Then there are Spotbiils (Resident ducks of Delhi Region) who have made a home of the channels and the garden. They are often seen enjoying a family picnic what with gardeneres in attendance with bread rmbs and choicest greens for their repast. And then there are parrots, mynahs, dovesm piegons who bath and bask with an ease of manner that evokes envy and admiration in all onlookers. Few lucky ones have also spotted birds like cormorant, jay or a transiting stork.

This garden derives it's evergreen texture from Moulsri, Putranjiva Roxburgi, Cypress, Thuja Orientalis and China Orange trees, rose shrubs and a variety of climbers.

Moulsri or Bakul is a typically Indian tree. Planted in the square patches of lawns along the channels and on the periphery of the two main lawns, they are pruned to look like mushrooms. They provide character and depth to the garden. They flower in the months of May and June and their mild sweet fragrance saturates the surroundings. This tree has been mentioned in the 'Sangam' literature, in the plays of the great poet Kalidasa and more recently by Abul Fazl in Ain-in-Akbari. There is an interesting details of this tree in a play by Kalidasa. The tree about to bear flowers is compared to a pregnant woman who nurtures desires for unusual things. Thus during the budding period the tree was said to have a desire to be sprinkled with mouthfuls of liquor by a virtuous maiden. This privilege was reserved for the queens and the princesses and celebrated in a royal ceremony.

Cypresses line the pavement and give a touch of formality, by virtue of their unchanging, full, erect shape. Planted axially they provide a perspective of depth. China Oranges alternate with Cypresses, and provide a welcome break from monotony. Whereas Cypress symbolises death and afterlife the China Oranges change their appearance through various stages of growth from season to season, symbolising renewal and celebration of life.

Putranjiva Roxburgi are planted around the two gazebos located at the western ends of the two terrace gardens. Not more than a skeletal structure of stone beams these gazebos are unique by themselves and in combination with the shade of Putrnajiva Roxburgi create an inviting grove of peace and repose.

Thuja Orientalis, a coniferous tree ornately hemmed in squares of well chiselled hedges of Golden Duranta presents a marvellous spectacle. This combination is placed along the periphery of the main garden and marks the various intersections and terminations in the pattern.

The following evergreen fragrant shrubs and creepers are planted along the terrace walls:

1. Raat ki Rani 
2. Mogra
3. Motiya
4. Juhi
5. Bignenia Vanista(Golden Showers)
6. Gardenia
7. Rhyncospermum
8. Petrea 
9. Harshringar
10. Bougainvillea
11. Adenocalymma( Garlic Creeper)
12. Hedera Helix
13. Climbing Roses
14. Tecoma Grandiflora
15. The Rangoon Creeper.

Roses flower throughout the year. The prime bloom though is after they are pruned in October every year. Along with the evergreens mentioned so far, roses help in achieving the permanence in texture throughout the year.

The garden has more than 250 celebrated varieties of roses, which makes it one of the best Rose Gardens in the world. It has roses like Bonne Nuit, Oklahoma which are neares to being black. In blues it has Paradise, Blue Moon, Lady X. We also have the rare green rose. The Roses ahve some very interesting names. Few Indians that have found place here are Mother Teresa, Arjun, Bhim, Raja Ram Mohun Roy, Jawahar, Dr.B.P.Pal. The international celebrities here are John F.Kennedy, Queen Elizabeth, Mr.Lincoln, Montezuma. Others worth mentioning are Christian Diar, Happiness, Century Two, First Prize, Jantar Mantar, Peter Frankenfeld, American Heritage, Bejazzo, Iceberg, Granada, World Rose, Command Performance, Imperator. The list is endless and the spectacle delightful.

Various herbaceous annuals and biennuals are grown in beds and informal borders. The beds are sited at the edge of lawns or along the pavements. Also the floweres are massed irregularly with respect to their height and grouped in colour combinations to produce harmonious, natural and pleasing effect.

The planting of seasonals is done twice a year in preparation for the "At Homes" hosted by the President on the occassion of the Republic Day( 26TH January) and the Independence Day(15TH August) every year, which are hosted in the Central lawn.

For winters the garden is replete with a number of annuals that have to compete with each other to find a place. Dwarf annuals like Calendula, Antirrhinum, Alyssum, Dimorphotheca, Eschscholzia (Californian Poppy), Larkspur, Gaznia, Gerbera, Godetia, Linaria, Mesembryanthemum, Portulaca, Brachycome, Metucharia, Verbena, Viola, Pansy, Stock grow well in flower beds. Other annuals that are grown include Dahlia, Aster, Carnation, Chrysamthemum, Clarkia, Statice, Lupin, Marigold, Nicotinia, Nemesia, Bells of Ireland, Poppy, Stock, Salvia, Cosmos, Linum, Sweet Sultan, Sweet Pea, Cineraria, Sweet William etc. They are used in pure beds and in combinations of varying heights create a pyramid of colours.

Edging and bordering of flower beds is done by Alyssum, Phlox, Petunia, Dasy, Pansy, Mimulus etc. Under the standard roses are grown Daisies, Mesembryanthemum, Pansies, Viola etc.

Naturalizing effect is created by the bulbous flowering plants like Narcissus, Freesia, Zephyranthrus, Gladiola, Tuberos, Oriental Lily, Asiatic Lily, Tulips, Anemone, Ranunculus, Iris, Daffodils etc.

For summers the choice is rather limited. But the dedication of the gardeners and bravery displayed by the plants sees them through. The August bloom would consist of Gaillardia, Vinca, Cosmos, Zinnia, Sunflower, Gomphrena, Portulaca, Balsam, Verbena, Celosia, Canna, Cochia, Rudbeckia etc.

Herbal Garden

ASHWAGANDH
Comman Name: Asvagandha, Asagand. 
English Name: Indian Ginseng. Winter Cherry.

It is an erect evergreen tomentose shurb. 30-150 cm high. Roots stout whitish-brown. Leaves simple owate. Those found in the fortal region small opposite. Flowers inoonspiouous, light green or pale yellow, in axilary. Umbellate cymes. Fruit a berry, reddish and globose. Parts used : Roots. Major Constituents : Alkaloids and with anolides (sterodial lactones) are the major groups of the secondary metabolites of medicinal interest isolated anmd characterized from the plant. Uses : Ashwangdha is a reputed medicinal plant, extensively utilized in Indian Systemof Medicine for treatment various diseases such as leprosy, nervous disorders, intestinal affections venereal diseases, theumatism, enuncation of children and as a tonic for all kinds of weakness and also to promote vigor and vitality.

BERGAMOT MINT
Common Name: Vilayati-Pudina 
English Name: Marsh mint; Bergamot mint Water mint; Lemon mint.

An erect, branching herb, leaves opposite, thin, peetioled, broadly ovate or elliptical or uppermost lanoeolate, acute, 15-5 cm long. Flowers small, appear in the uppermost axils and in short dense terminal spikes. Parts used : Leaf Major Constituents : The main constituents of Bergamot mint oil are linalool (50-56%) and linalyl acetate (30-35%) Uses : The main use of Bergamot mint oil is in perfumery and cosmetics. The oil is used as such in soaps, perfumes and toiletry items.

BHUMY AMALAKI

Comman Name: Bhumyamalaki, Tamalaki, Hazardana
English Name: Phyllanthus.

Erect annual herb, upto 1 m; main stem simple or branched, smooth, terete, straminous or brownish, Cataphylls: stipules deltold, aominate, entire, blade subulate, aouminate, 1-1.5 mm long; stipules ovate, lnceolate, entire, leaf blades membranous of thikcned, ellipti oblong, 5.11 mm long and 3.6 mm broad, obtuse or rounded. Flowes monoecious with unisexual and bisexual cymules. Inflorescence of bisexual, the pentamerous caiyx with acute lobes, the very short erect styles and the usually 5 lobed female disk. Parts Used : Whole plant. Major Constituents : Pamarus eleborates different classes oforganic compounds of medicinal importance including alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, lignans, tannins, benzenoids. Coumarins and lipids. The major compound found to be lignans Phyllanthin and Hypophyllanthin. Uses : The herb is bitter in taste and is reported to possess astringnet, deobstruent, stomachic, diuretic, febrifuge and antiseptic properties. Fresh and dried plants are used in treatment of jaundice. The plant is ingredient of many polyherbal drugs of Ayurveda that are used in the treatment of jaundice. Chemical compounds – Phyllanthin Hypophyllanthin exhibit pronounced antihepatotoxic properties.

BRAMHI

Comman Name: Brahmi, Jala Brahmi.
English Name: Thyme-leaved Gratiola

The plant is creeping succulent herb that branches profusely at nodes. The succulent leaf is sessile, opposite, decussate, obovate-oblanceolate in shape, with inconspicuous veins and produce branches in their axils. Flowers solitary, axillary with while or lilac campanulate corolla and capitate stigma. The fruit is an ovoid capsule with persistent style. Parts used : Whole plant Major Constituents : The herb contains the saponins, monnierin, hersaponin and bacosides. Uses : The plant is used in treatment of mental disorders like epilepsy, insanity and memory loss. Bacosides have been proved to be responsible for improving intellect and memory and are the basis for memory enhance property.

CITRONELLA
Comman Name: Java ghas
English Name: Old Cirronella grass, Cirronella Jave

Tall tufted grass up to 2.5m high, leaf-sheath glabrous, yellowish green, basal sheath glabrous, green-reddish up to 1m long, linear, acuminate, Spathate panicie up to 1m long with several racemes in zigzag axis. Sessile spikelets 5mm long : lower glume oblong lanceolate. Pedicelled spikelet 5mm long: lower glime lanoelate. 7-nerved. Parts used : Aerial parts, source of essential oil. Major Constituents : Main constitutes of the oil are citronellot, geraniol, citronellal: minor constituents are limonene, cis-ocimene, linalool, isopuegol and caryophullene, etc. Uses : Citronella oil is used mostly in perfumery, soap flakes, detergent, household cleaners, technical products and as an insecticides

GERANIUM
Common Name: Geranium
English Name: Geranium

Perennial shrub up to 90 cm tall. Leaves broadly cordate, chartaceous with about 5 innatisect secondary lobes, pubescent on both surfaces. Flowers pinking, leaf opposed, bracteate in umbell. Parts used : Whole plant source of essential oil. Major Constituents : Main constituents are citronellol, geraniol, or pinene, myricine, phellandrene, limonene etc. Uses : Geranium oil has strong rose-like odour with minty top note. It blends well with all kinds of scents, both floral as well as orental and is used extensively in perfumery and cosmetics.

EVENING PRIMROSE
Comman Name: Evening primorse.
English Name: Evening primorse.

Usually biennial, but often flowering the first year, rosettes attaining 60 cm diameter; stems about 30-40 cm.. high, copiously branched, green to red: lower leaves narrowly oblanceolate, the upper ovate; flowers yellow, Hypanthium about 2 cm long. Fruit linear. Seed angled horizontal in pod. Parts Used : Seeds. Major Constituents : The seeds yield substantial amount of fixed oil containing y-linolenic acid. Uses : The oil is widely used as a dietary supplement, for cosmetic purpose and more specially for the treatment of atopic eczema dn the pre menstrual syndrome.

GHRITAKUMARI
Comman Name: Ghritakumari
English Name: A barbadenensis Mill

The plant is characterized by succulent leaves having prickles along the margin; leaves arranged in a rosette at the base on the soil. The leaves are suberect or spreading, lanceolate, acuminate, 30-60 cm long and 5-7.5 cm broad. The flowers are 2.5 cm long. Yellow to vermillion and arranged along a central axis, which may be 60-90 cm long. Parts used : Leaves, Aloe juice and Aloe gel. Major Constituents : The principle constituents of aloe is barbaloin, a 10 glucopyranosyl derivatice of aloe-emodine-anthrone, a small amount of free aloe-emodine is also present. Uses : Aloe juice, which on drying froms semiopaque. Dark-brown substance called Mussabar in Indian trade; this plant product is reputed to possess purgative action.

GILOY
Comman Name: Amrita, Giloy, Gulancha
English Name: Tinospora

Large, glabrous, deciduous, climbing shrubs. Leaves broadly ovate, cordate, long petiolate. Flowers small, yellow or greenish-yellow, appearing when the plant is leafiless, in axillary and terminal racemes or racemose panicles; male flowers clustered females usually solitary. Parts used : Root, stem, leat. Major Constituents : The dry stem with bark constitutes the drug, which have different reported constituents, such as bitter glycoside Gillian a non glucoside giloinin. Three bitter compounds namely tinosporon acid and tinosporol have been reported. Uses : It is an important constituent of several preparations, used in general debility, dyspepsia fever as aphrodisiac in urinary disorders. It is also reported to provide relief in diabetes, piles and dysentery. A part from stem, the decoction of the leaves is used in the treatment of gout. The root is also powerful emetic and also used for visceral obstruction.

ISABGOL
Comman Name: Ishapgola, isapghul
English Name:Blond Psyllium, Indian Psyllium, Spogel Seeds.

It is an annual herb with rosette-like leaves, 3-45 cm in length. Leaves are narrowly linear, 7-20 cm long and 4-6 mm in breath. A large number of flowering shoots emerge from the base. Shoots are cylindrical to ovate in shape and 2-4 cm in length. Flowers are white and minute. Capsule is ovate, 8 mm long with two seeds, pinking-grey brown or pinkish white in colour. Each seed is encased in a thin white transluscent membrance which is odourless and tasteless. Parts used : Seeds and seed husk Major Constituents : The isabgol husk yields a colloidal mucilage consisting mainly of xylose. Arabinose and galacturonic acid. Rhamnose and galactose are also prsent. The dehusked seeds possess yellow semi-drying oil, rich in lonoleic acid. Uses : The dried seeds and husk are mildly astringent, emollient, demulcent, lubricant and laxative, and used in the treatment of chronic constipation, amoebic and bacillary dysentery and diarrhoea.

KALMEGH
Comman Name: Kalmegh, Hara Chirayata
English Name: The Creat.

It is an annual herbaceous of shrubby procumbent or erect plant up to one m high. The branches are sharply quadrangular, often narrowly winged towards the apical region. Leaves petiolate, 5.8 cm long and 1-1.25 cm broad, lanceolate, acute. Flowers small, solitary in panicles, with rose colour corolla, which is hairy externally. Parts used : Whole Plant. Major Constituents : The major bitter principle is a diterpene lactone called and andrographolide and non-bitter compound neoandrograph olide. Uses : The plant is extensively used in Indian Systems of Medicine for astringent, anodyne, anit-inflammatory, immunosuppressive and alexipharmic properties. Decoction fo the plant is blood purifier, used for cure of torbid liver, jaundice, dermatological diseases, dyspepsia, febrifuge and anthelminitic. Tincture of the root is tonic, stimulant and aperient. The plant is often used as substitute of chirayita (Swertia chirayita).

LEMON GRASS
Comman Name: Nibu ghas.
English Name: Malabar grass, East Indian lemon grass.

Erect grass up to 3m tall. Leaf linear, acuminate, glaucous. Spathate panicle large, loose. Sessile spiketet 4.5-5mm long. Lower glume 2-keeled from the middle upwards, wings on the keels glabrous, margin of the keel minutely toothed, upper glume boat shaped. Pedicelled spiketets male of neuter. Parts Used : Aerial parts, source of essential oil. Major Constituents : Major chemical constituents of East Indian lemon grass is citral; minor constituents are: linalool, geraniol, citronellol, nerol, 1.8 cineol, linayl acetate etc. west Indian lemongrass contains ciutral-a and citral-b myrcene” minor constituents are a pinene, phellandrene, citronellal citronellyl acetate geraniol etc. Uses : Oil of the plant is used in soenting detergents, washing soaps and other home products.

MARIGOLD
Comman Name: Wild marigold
English Name: Stinking Roger

Aromatic, grooved annual herb. Leaves opposite or alternate, often both types of same plant odd pinnate, 5-15 cm long: leaflets usually 13-17, linear lanceolate. Sharply serrate. Heads yellowish many crowded together in dusters at the end of branches. Parts Used : Whole plants Major Constituents : the major components essential oil are: (Z) B-ocimene(38.77%) dihydrotagetone (9.07%). (Z) B-tagetone (7%) (Z) ocimene (7%) and (E) ocimenone (13%) Uses : The whole plant is hydro-distilled for its essential oil. The oil is widely used in the perfumer, phamaceutial and agricultural industries.

MENTHOL MINT
Comman Name: Japanese mint, Menthol mint etc.
English Name: Japanese mint, Menthol mint etc.

A perennial creeping ascending herb propagated by its suckers. Leaves lanceolate-oblong, sharply toothed. Rower in axillany and terminal verticellaster, whitish purpulish. Seeds minute. Smooth. Parts Used : Aerial shoots, source of essential oil. Major Constituents : Major constituents are menthol, other are menthone and methyl acetate. Uses : Menthol is generally used in flavouring toothpaste. Candies, mouth washes, chewing gum , beverages, confectiories and also in cosmetic prepareation. Menthol is also used in medicines like pain balm, analgesic cremas and couth syrups etc.

MILK THISTLE
Comman Name: Chund
English Name: St. Mary’s thistle, Milk thistle. Holy thistle

An armed erect annual undershrubs. Leaves upto 30 cm long. Lower pinnatifid, spiescently dentate. Base amplexicaul with rounded auricles, upper smaller and sessile. Heads homogamous terminal solitary. Involucral bracts 4-6 seriate: outer ovate-lanceolate ending into a long apical spine: inner lanceolate. Acute, usally spine tipped. Achenes black, with an apical rim. Parts used : seeds Major Constituents : seeds contain a number of flavonolignans silybin and silymarin. Uses : Silmarin has marked antihepatotoxic properties and used in the preparations of the drug for liver cirrhosis and jaundice.

PALMAROSA
Comman Name: Rosha ghas
English Name: Palmarosa grass, Ginger grass

Erect grass up to 2m tall. Leaf sheath glabrous: leaf blade 50 cm long, cordate at the base. Often amplexicual. Spathate panicle erect, narrow sessile spikelet alliptic-oblong. Parts used : Aerial parts, source of essential oil Major Constituents : The main constituents of essential oil are: Geraniol, geranyl acetate, citral, citronell of and linalool etc. Uses : The oil is the source of high grade geraniol, used in perfumery, cosmetics and flavouring indistries.

PATCHOULI
Comman Name: pathchouli
English Name: Erect aromatic much-branched underhrub. Leaves ovate-oblong, toothed tomentose on both the surfaces. Flowers in axillary and terminal both spikes.

Parts used : Leaves Major Constituents : Patchauli alcohol, pathoulene, caryophyllene, bulnesene. Elemene. Etc. Uses : Oil is used in modern perfumery and cosmetic industires. It is also used to flavour food products, alcholic drinks and non alcohol bevarages, frozen food. Dairy products, candies, baked goods and meat products.

PAPPERMINT
Comman Name: Pappermint. Vilayati-Pudina
English Name: Peppermint, Brandy Mint

Perennial glabrous erect herb with a strong pepper-like pungent odour. Leaves opposite petiolate ovate. Oblong, lanceolate 1.5-5 cm long, acute or obtuse at the base, serrate. Flowers purplish, 2.5-7.5 cm long terminal spikes. Parts used : Leaves Major constituents : The leaves contain 0.4-0.5% essential oil. The main constituents of the oil are menthol (40-50%) and menthode (25-30%). Uses : Peppermint oil is used mainly in pharmaceutical products and as a flavour in food products,. It is used in flavouring chewing gums, tooth pastes, confectionery, tobacco. Alcoholic beverages, cigarettes and a variety of other food products.

PUDINA
Comman Name: Pudina, Pahari pudina
English Name: Hill Mint

glabrous perennial herb with creeping rhizome. Leaves ovate-elliptic or lanceolate. Coarsely dentate, glabrous above, glandular below. Flowers lilac in loose, cylindricual, stender interrupted spikes. Parts used : Leaves Major constituents : Essential oil contains carvone, terpenes, alcohol etc. Uses : Oil is used for flavoring chewing gums, tooth pastes, confectionery and pharmaceutical preparations.

QUINGHAOSU
Comman Name: Quinghaous.
English Name: Sweentworm wood

Annual erect plant up to 2m tall. Leaves 2-3 pinnatisect or decompound, serrate or lobulate. Inflorescence panicle (compound raceme) with capitulum. The capitula are inoonspicuous hemispherical, pendulous. Achenes surface has longitudinal striations and lack pappus. Parts used : Aerial parts /Artemisinin Major constituents : One of the economically important constituents of the plant is the sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin. The other main constituents are artemisitene, arteannuin B and artemisinic acid. Uses : The compound artemisinin has been found to be effective for the treatment of clhoroquin resistant malaria and cerebral malaria. Two semi-synthetic derivatives of artemisinin namely arteehter and artesunate have been found to be more effective than artemisinin in the clinical trails. The palnt yield essential oil after st4am distillation of fresh herbage which is widely used in pharmaceutical, cosmetics and flavouring industries.

SADABAHAR
Comman Name: Sadabahar Sadaphul, Sadasuhagan
English Name: Tropical Periwinkle

It is a perennial herb, erect, much branched. 70-80 cm high. Leaves alliptic to obovate, rounded retuse or mucronulate at apex acute at base. Flowers in 1-4 flowered cymes. Calyx segments subulate. Corolla whitish or pinkish. Follicles 2-3 cm long, pubescnt. Parts used : Leaves and roots Major constituents : More than 100 alkaloids have been isolated from roots and leaves of this plant. The most important alkaloids having anticancer properties from the leaves are: vinblastin. The important alkaloids isolated from roots are : ajmalicine, serpentine and reserpine. Uses : The alkaliod Vinblastin is principally used for the treatment of Hodgkin’s disease., hymphosarcroma, horiocarinoma, neuroblastoma and carcrinoma of the breast lungs and tests also used against leukaemia vincristine is used particularly for the treatment of acute leukaemia,. Hodgkin’s disease, Wilm’s tumour neuroblastoma. Rhabdosacroma and reticulum-cell sarcoma. The alkaloid ajmalicine from root is used as a hypotensive and antiarrhythmic agent.

SHATAVARI
Comman Name: Satavar, Satamuli, Satavali
English Name:Asparagus

Scandant, much-branched spinous undershrub with tuberous, short rootstock bearing numerous fusiform tuberous roots. 30-100 cm long and 1-2 cm thick leaves reduced to minute chaffy scales and spines. Cladodes acicular, 2-6 nate, falcate, finely acuminate. Flowers in raceme: pedicels jointed in the middle: anthers minute, oblong, purplish, ovules 6-8 in each cells. Parts used : Tuberous root Major constituents : Plant contains several steroidal glycosides satavarin-I IV: sarsapogenin and kaempferol from the woody portion of the root and an alkaloid, asparagamine from the roots has been also isolated. Uses : The roots are exentsively used in the in the indigenous systems of medicine as a nutritive tonic and given for sexual debility. It is also considered. Antispasmodic, refrigerant, demulcent, galactagogue and antispasmodic, useful in diabetes, jaundice, urinary disorders, epilepsy, haemophillic disorders and swelling.

SPERAMINT
Comman Name: Spearmint
English Name: Indian Ginseng. Winter Cherry.

A perennial herb: leaves lanceolate, sharply serrate. Flowers white in axillary and ternimal verticellasters. Parts used : Aerial shoots, source of essential oil Major constituents : Major constituents of the oil are: carvone and limonene Uses : Essential oil is used in condiments and medicine.

VACH
Comman Name: Vach
English Name: Sweet flag, Calamus

A perennial semi aquatic herb. Rhizome creeping, cylindrical, much branched, aromatic, light brown or pinkish brown outside and white, spongy, inside. Leaves ensiform, distichous. Flowers green , bisexual, in sessile spadix: perianath of six orbicular segments (6). Berries green, angular, a few seeded. Parts used : Rhizome Major constituents : Rhizome contain 2-4% volatile oil containing asarone (upto 82%) and its isomer, pinene, myrcene, camphene, pcymine, camphor and linalool Uses : The rhizome is used as bitter carminative, stomachic, nervine tonic, tranquillizer and useful in bronchial asthma.

VETIVER
Comman Name: Khas
English Name: Vertiver

A perennial rhizomatous grass with erect clums. Leaves up to 2m long: ligule, a minute seavour rim. Flower in panicle of spiciform racemes. Panicles branches, usually contracted. Sessile spikelets laterally compressed, line lanceolate : pedicelled spikelets up to 0.6 cm long. Parts used : Roots, source of essential oil. Major constituents : The main constituents of vetiver oil is Khusimol, vetiselinenol, eudesmol vetivone and veticerol etc Uses : Vetiver oil is used perfumery as fixative and as odour stabilizer. Also used in flavouring tobacco, pan masala and soft drinks.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

राष्ट्रपति भवन

राष्ट्रपति भवन की भव्यता बहुआयामी है। यह एक विशाल भवन है और इसका वास्तुशिल्प विस्मयकारी है। इससे कहीं अधिक, इसका लोकतंत्र के इतिहास में गौरवमय स्थान है क्योंकि यह दुनिया के सबसे बड़े लोकतंत्र के राष्ट्रपति का निवास स्थल है। आकार, विशालता तथा इसकी भव्यता के लिहाज से, दुनिया के कुछ ही राष्ट्राध्यक्षों के सरकारी आवासीय परिसर राष्ट्रपति भवन की बराबरी कर पाएंगे। 

मौजूदा राष्ट्रपति भवन पहले ब्रिटिश वायसराय का निवास स्थान था। इसके वास्तुकार एडविन लैंडसीयर लुट्येन्स थे। ब्रिटिश वायसराय के लिए नई दिल्ली में निवास स्थान निर्माण करने का निर्णय तब लिया गया था जब दिल्ली दरबार में 1911 में यह तय किया गया था कि भारत की राजधानी को उसी वर्ष कलकत्ता से दिल्ली स्थानांतरित किया जाएगा। इस इमारत का निर्माण भारत में ब्रिटिश हुकूमत के स्थायित्व पर मोहर लगाने के लिए किया गया था। एक आलोचक के शब्दों में इस इमारत से एक चिरस्थाई दरबार का अहसास होता था। यह इमारत तथा इसके परिवेश को यह माना जाता था कि यह ‘पत्थरों से निर्मित साम्राज्य’ है जो कि ‘शाही प्रभुत्व का उपभोग करता था’ तथा यह, ‘‘ऐसे निरपेक्ष आभिजात्य वर्ग का निवास था जिसका शासन ऊपर से थोपा गया था।’’ इस ‘पत्थरों से निर्मित साम्राज्य’ तथा चिरस्थायी दरबार को 26 जनवरी, 1950 को उस समय लोकतंत्र की स्थायी संस्था के रूप में परिवर्तित कर दिया गया था जब डॉ. राजेंद्र प्रसाद भारत के प्रथम राष्ट्रपति बने तथा उन्होंने भारत के संविधान की संरक्षा, सुरक्षा तथा रक्षा के लिए इस भवन में निवास करना शुरू किया। इसी दिन से इस भवन का नाम बदलकर राष्ट्रपति भवन अर्थात राष्ट्रपति का निवास रखा गया। 

मुख्य वास्तुविद, एडविन लुट्येन्स तथा मुख्य इंजीनियर, ह्यूज कीलिंग के अलावा बहुत से भारतीय ठेकेदार इस इमारत के निर्माण से जुड़े थे। 

इस भवन के लिए 400000 पौंड की राशि मंजूर की गई थी। परंतु इस इमारत के निर्माण में 17 साल का लम्बा समय लगा, जिससे इसकी लागत बढ़कर 877,136 पौंड (उस समय 12.8 मिलियन) हो गयी। इस इमारत के अलावा, मुगल गार्डन तथा कर्मचारियों के आवास पर आया वास्तविक खर्च 14 मिलियन था। कहा जाता है कि एडविन लुट्येन्स ने कहा था कि इस इमारत के निर्माण में लगी धनराशि दो युद्ध पोतों के निर्माण में लगने वाली धनराशि से कम थी। 

यह एक रोचक तथ्य है कि जिस भवन को पूरा करने की समय-सीमा चार वर्ष थी, उसे बनने में 17 वर्ष लगे और इसके निर्मित होने के अट्ठारहवें वर्ष भारत आजाद हो गया। 

इस विशाल भवन की चार मंजिलें हैं और इसमें 340 कमरे हैं। 200000 वर्गफीट के निर्मित स्थल वाले इस भवन के निर्माण में 700 मिलियन ईंटों तथा तीन मिलियन क्यूबिक फीट पत्थर का प्रयोग किया गया था। इस इमारत के निर्माण में इस्पात का अत्यल्प प्रयोग हुआ है। 

राष्ट्रपति भवन का सबसे प्रमुख तथा विशिष्ट पहलू इसका गुम्बद है जो कि इसके ढांचे के ऊपर प्रमुखता से स्थापित है। यह काफी दूर से दिखाई देता है और दिल्ली के बीचों-बीच स्थित एक वृत्ताकार आधार पर टिकी हुई चित्ताकर्षक गोलाकार छत है। हालांकि लुट्येन्स ने जाहिरी तौर पर इस गुंबद का डिजायन रोम के पैंथियन से लेने की बात स्वीकार की है परंतु जानकार विश्लेषकों का यह दृढ़ मत है कि इस गुंबद का ढांचा सांची के महान स्तूप की बनावट पर तैयार किया गया था। इस गुंबद में भारतीय वास्तुशिल्प की प्रमुखता इस तथ्य से स्पष्ट है कि यह सांची मूल के रेलिंग से घिरा हुआ है। वास्तव में, पूरा राष्ट्रपति भवन बौद्ध रेलिंगों, छज्जों, छतरियों तथा जालियों जैसे भारतीय वास्तुशिल्प संबंधी बनावटों का मूर्त रूप है। 

छज्जे पत्थर के ऐसे स्लैब होते हैं जिन्हें भवन की छत के नीचे लगाया जाता है और उनका डिजाइन इस तरह बनाया जाता है जिससे धूप खिड़कियों पर न पड़े तथा बरसात के मौसम में दीवारें पानी से बच सकें। छतरियां भवन के छतों पर लगी होती हैं तथा वे ऊंची होने के कारण क्षितिज पर अलग दिखाई देती हैं। छज्जों और छतरियों की तरह ही जालियां भी विशिष्ट भारतीय डिजाइन की हैं और इनसे राष्ट्रपति भवन के वास्तुशिल्प में चार-चांद लग जाते हैं। जालियां पत्थरों के ऐसे स्लैब हैं जिनमें बहुत से छेद बनाए गए हैं तथा उन पर बारीकी से फूल तथा ज्यामितीय पैटर्न बनाए गए हैं। लुट्येन्स ने बहुत ही सावधानी से छज्जों, छतरियों और जालियों का प्रयोग किया और उन्हें सटीक जगहों पर लगाकर इन डिजाइनों की उपयोगिता का कुशलता से प्रयोग किया। राष्ट्रपति भवन में लगी हुई कुछ जालियों में, इनकी सुंदरता और उपयोगिता बढ़ाने के लिए लुट्येन्स ने यूरोपीय शैली का भी मिश्रण किया। 

राष्ट्रपति भवन की एक अन्य विशेषता इसके खंभों में भारतीय मंदिरों की घंटियों का प्रयोग है। यह सर्वविदित है कि मंदिरों की घंटियां हमारी सामासिक संस्कृति, खासकर हिंदू, बौद्ध तथा जैन परंपराओं का अभिन्न अंग है। इन घंटियों का हेलेनिक शैली के वास्तुशिल्प के साथ मिश्रण, वास्तव में भारतीय और यूरोपीय डिजाइनों के सम्मिश्रण का एक बेहतरीन उदाहरण है। खास बात यह है कि इस तरह की घंटियां नार्थ ब्लॉक, साउथ ब्लाक तथा संसद भवन में मौजूद नहीं हैं। यह उल्लेख करना रोचक होगा कि राष्ट्रपति भवन के खंभों में इस तरह की घंटियों के प्रयोग का विचार कर्नाटक के मुदाबिदरी नामक स्थान पर स्थित एक जैन मंदिर से प्राप्त हुआ। 

जब चक्रवर्ती राजगोपालाचारी ने भारत के प्रथम गवर्नर जनरल के तौर पर पद ग्रहण किया और वे इस भवन में आकर रहने लगे, वे इसके कुछ ही कमरों में रहना पसंद करते थे जो अब राष्ट्रपति का फैमिली विंग है। तत्कालीन वायसराय के आवास को अतिथि विंग में बदल दिया गया था जहां दूसरे देशों के राष्ट्राध्यक्ष भारत में अपने प्रवास के दौरान ठहरते हैं। 

भारत के लोगों की शक्ति तथा प्राधिकार, जो कि इस गणतंत्र में व्याप्त है, का प्रतिनिधित्व इस देश के राष्ट्रपति द्वारा किया जाता है, जिनका सरकारी आवास राष्ट्रपति भवन है तथा जिस भवन का वास्तुशिल्प दुनिया भर के समर्पित वास्तुविदों और आम आदमी, सभी को मंत्रमुग्ध कर देता है। 

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