The name of this district is derived from Rohitasva (Rohtas) fort in 1972. Rohitasva was son of king Harishchandra who was ancestor of king Dasarath, father of Lord Ram. The head quarter of district Rohtas is Sasaram. There is a mythical context behind the derivation of Sasaram. According to that, in a fight of a monester having thousand hands i.e. Sahastrabahu with Parsuram, Sahastrabahu was killed after loosing his thousand hands by Parsuram. Parsuram is regarded as temporary incarnation of lord Vishnu before Ram. Sahastra is taken from Sahastrabahu and Ram is taken from Parsuram. Collectively it became Sahasram and later on Sahasram is changed in Sasaram.
The District of ROHTAS formed a part of the Magadh Empire since 6th B.C. to 5TH Century A.D. under the pre Mauryans. The minor rock edict of Emperor Ashok at Chandan Sahid near Sasaram confirmed the Mauryans conquests of this district. In the 7th Century A.D. This district came under the control of Harsha rulers of Kannauj.
In mythological and historical views, Rohtas is important place in national level. The hilly region of Vindhya series is known as Kurush Kshetra in Vedic period that was famous for Rishi, Mantra, exhibitors and land of legends. In prehistoric periods the plateau region of the district has been the adobe of the aboriginals whose chief representative now is the Bhars, the cheros and the Savers. According to some legends, the Kharwars were the original setters in the hilly tracts of Rohtas. The area of the district successively came under the ruler of Shail dynasty of central India and Pal dynasty of Bengal. After the fall of the Guptas the district in all probability relapsed into the hands of the aboriginal tribes and came under the control of petty chiefs. Rajputs who came from Ujjain and the province of Mallwa has a series of conflicts with the aboriginals and took them many hundred years to subdue the aboriginal completely. A hundred years later, it passed under the direct control of Muslim empire of Delhi. Later on after different ruling it came in hand of British.
Sher Shah’s father Hassan Khan Suri was an Afghan adventure, he got the jagir of Sasaram as a reward for his services to Jamal Khan, and the Governor of Province during the latter’s attachment with the king of Jaunpur. But the Afghan Jagirdar was not able to exercise full control over this subject since the allegiance of the people was very lose and the landlords were particularly independent. In 1529 Babar invaded Bihar. Babar has left in his memories an interesting account of the place. He mentioned about the superstitions of the Hindu with regard to river Karamnasa and also described how he swam across the river Ganga at Buxar in 1528.
The great Afghan ruler Sher Shah got birth and spent his childhood here. In small age, he became king. In his ruling period, he built GRAND TRUNK ROAD, several Sarai and tombs. Sher Shah was died in a bomb blast. His grave is still in tomb with his families and fellows.
When Babar died , Sher Shah become active again .In 1537 Humayun advanced against him and he seized his fortresses at Chunar and Rohtas Garh. Humayun proceeded to Bengal where he spent six months, while on his return journey to Delhi he suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of the Sher Shah at Causa. This victory secured for Sher Shah the imperial throne of Delhi. “ The rule of Sur dynasty , which Sher Shah founded, was very short lived. Soon the Mughals regions the imperial throne of Dehli. After his assassination, Akbar tried to extend his empire and consolidated it. The district of Rohtas was thus included in the empire”
The next event of importance which shook the District, was the reign of Raja Chait Singh of Banaras, his kingdom included large part of Shahabad and his control extended up to Buxar.He raised the banner of revolt against he English who had a difficult time. At Chunar and Ghazipur, the English troops suffered defeat and the very foundations of the English power in India was shaken. But, ‘is well known fact that Chait Singh lost eventually.
The district had a very uneventful history till we come to 1857 when Kunwar Singh revolted against the British Empire in line with the Mutineers of 1857. Most of the hiroic details of Kunwar Singh is concerned with the present district of Bhojpur. However he mutiny had its impact and produced similar up-rising and incidents here and there. The hilly tracts of the district offered natural escape to the fugitives of the Mutiny. During Independence movement the district had a substantiates contribution to the freedom movement of India. After Independence Rohtas remained a part of the Shahabad District. In 1972 Rohtas became a separate District.
Bihar became the first state in India to have separate web page for every city and village in the state on its website www.brandbihar.com (Now www.brandbharat.com)
See the record in Limca Book of Records 2012 on Page No. 217